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Chronological timeline

2.5 mill. to 12,000 y.ago Palaeolithic or Old Stone Age Nomadic gatherers & hunters tool making (stone bone etc)
    respect & worship of Nature  
10.000 BCE - 5,000 BCE Neolithic or New Stone Age Beginning of food production = First village communities
    domestication of plants and first pottery after 6.000
    animals; 'Mother Nature' worship  
5,000 - 3,000 BCE Chalcolithic (='Copper/Stone') Age Progress in agricultural Complex village cultures
    techniques and early metal work
3,000 - 2,000 BCE Early Bronze Age Agriculture and urban production; First fortified towns with special craft
  Canaanites in the Levant trade; kingship and urban control production; Weapons and warfare;
      Writing systems
2,000 - 1,200 BCE Middle and Late Bronze Age Urban production; land and sea Urban Palace culture; increasing
  Cannanites in the Levant trade; agriculture specialization; furniture, textiles, artwork
end of 2nd mill. BCE End of the Bronze Age -Arrival Agriculture survives; some Breakdown of main urban
  of 'Sea Peoples' in the Levant maritime trade centers and palace culture
1,200 - 550 BCE Iron Age - Phoenicians/Syrians Urban production; land and sea Phoenician urban production:
  /Phalestines in the Levant trade; agriculture textiles; metal work; ivory
550 - 330 BCE Persian or Late Phoenician Urban production; land and sea Phoenician urban production:
  period in the Levant trade; agriculture Greek & Persian imports
330 - 64 BCE Hellenistic period as before Conquest of the Near East by Alexander the
      Great; cultural exchange and acculturation
64 BCE - AD 395 Roman period   Conquest of the Middle East by the Romans
      Roman colonisation and road system
AD 395 - 632 Byzantine period   Constantinople Eastern Roman empirial capital
      Christianity adopted as state religion
AD 661 - 750 Umayyads: capital Damascus   Coming of Islam: Busra, Ba'lbek and other
      cities open their gates to the Muslims
750 - 1110 Abbasids: capital Baghdad   The Islamic empire grows and the center
      moves east; Islamic rulers in Spain & NAfrica
1098 - 1291 Crusader period European rulers&the Pope gain strongholds in
      the Near East; until the Ayyubid Salah ed-Din
1291 - 1516 Mamluks: capital Cairo, Tripoli   Mamluk sultans (Baybars) reconquer the
      Near East; Mamluk Jerusalem etc
1516 - 1918 Ottoman empire: capital   Sultan Selim won Syria, Palestine and Egypt;
  Istanbul   Suleyman built the 'Süleymaniye mosque' etc
      (architect Sinan); 19th cent Beirut developed
1920 - 1943 Mandate period   Further development of Beirut harbour & city
1943 - present Independence of Lebanon and on   First large-scale excavations in Beirut Center

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