The ancient oriental seals here presented come from the Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology, Toronto, Canada, and were collected by its Director, Dr. C. T. Currelly, over a period of years. A few of them came as gifts to the Museum, but most of them were purchased by Dr. Currelly from dealers in various parts of the world. The provenance of the seals is accordingly quite unknown and they can be dated only approximately by comparison with other seals whose dates may be known. On some difficult points in connection with the cylinder seals I had the privilege of consulting Professor Henri Frankfort of the Oriental Institute, Chicago, and for the stamp seals I had similar opportunity to consult Dr. Neilson C. Debevoise, also of the Oriental Institute. These scholars are our leading authorities in these two fields,1 but they of course are not to be held responsible for anything that appears here because they saw no part of the manuscript. The seals are arranged as largely as possible in chronological order and the new low chronology is followed,2 but some of these dates will have to be reduced still lower if Poebel is correct in dating Shamshi-Adad I to 1726-1694 B.C.3 The Early Dynastic Period is divided into the three phases, I, II, and III, as indicated by Frankfort.4 The collection is a very representative one and ranges all the way from jamdat Nasr times down to the late Arab period.

The seal impressions were made by Mr. William Todd of the Museum's technical staff and are the size of the originals. The photographs are the same size except the bottom row on Plate V (Nos. 9 and 18) and those on Plate VI (Nos. 23, 26, 31, 35, 37, 43, 47, 48, 50 and 61) where some of the seals on the preceding plates are repeated in enlargements made by a special process as follows. From the impression of the seal in

1. See, e.g., H. Frankfort, Cylinder Seals, 1939; Neilson C. Debevoise, "The Essential Characteristics of Parthian and Sasanian Glyptic Art," Berytus I, 1943, 1 ff.; "Parthian Seals," in A. U. Pope (ed.), A Survey of Persian Art, 1, 1938, 471 ff. See also Phyllis Ackerman, "Säsänian Seals," ibid. pp. 784 ff.
2. See T. J. Meek, Journal of Religion, XXI, 1941, 404, n. 15.
    3. A. Poebel, "The Assyrian King List from Khorsabad," JNES, I, 1942, 285 ff. It is to be noted, however, that on p. 289 Poebel calculates that Shamshi-Adad I began to reign in 1726 + x B.C., x being the length of the reigns of the two consecutive kings Ashürabî I and Ashür-nädin- ahhê I, but on p. 293 he concludes that x must be zero,
4. Op. cit. pp, 39 ff.


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