Much pertinent material for the correct understanding of this idea was collected by E. Herzfeld in his book Altpersische Inschriften, p. 318 ff. Herzfeld maintains that räaman is the Avestan equivalent of Old Persian syätis, and he points to the fact that in pre-Zoroastrian times the word was associated with Mira and Vrragna.19 The fact is well attested that beginning with Artaxerxes II the god Mira and his circle play some part in Achaemenian inscriptions.20 Thus, one will not be surprised to find Miraic terminology employed in contemporaneous inscriptions.

The additional circumstance may be noted21 that certain Sassanian kings call themselves rämsahr "king of peace" on their coins.

The seals impressed on the tags were probably those of officials of the royal administration. Some such officials seem to have worked as a team. When the composition of the team changed, the seal of the outgoing member would disappear and be replaced by the seal of the new member.



Yale University


19. It may be mentioned in this connection that Vr0ragna is the bearer of the Xvarna, the symbol of kingship. See e.g. H. S. Nyberg, Die Religionen des alten Iran     (Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatisch- aegyptischen Gesellschaft, 43), 72.
20. H. S. Nyberg, l.c., 368 ff.
21. E. Herzfeld, Altpersische lnschriften, 322.


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