11 . The Greek and the corresponding Iranian
word are certainly translations of the Assyrian word meaning
"campaign" (see in the report on the third campaign: and
in the report on the second campaign: It is well known that the
early Annals of the Assyrian kings were arranged chronologically, the
military events being reported year by year. However in the later
Annals (see especially the Annals of Sennacherib and Assurbanipal)
instead of the term year appears the term "campaign." See Luckenbill,
op. cit., Introduction. It must be noted however that is not used in the sense "campaign" by the Greek
writers and Greek inscriptions. Nearest to it is Plato, Legg. 746D
where it means "leading of the army" and Vettius Valens, Anth.
ed. Kroll, p. 339, 29:
In these passages the term is more or less equivalent to the Latin terminus
technicus ductus, in such standardized expressions as: ductu
auspicio imperio (see Th. L.L., s.v. "ductus" and for the
religious and political meaning of the formula, M. A. Levi, Auspicio
Imperio Ductu Felicitate, R. Ist. Lombardo, LXXI, 1938, pp. 1
ff., esp. p. 14). However in later authors ductus in the plural
is sometimes equivalent to "campaigns," see for example Amm. Marc.,
XXIII, 5, 7: hic (at Zaitha) Gordiani imperatoris longe conspicuum
vidimus tumulum, cuius actus a pueritia prima, exercituumque
felicissimos ductus, et insidiarum interitum, digessimus tempore
competenti. One may think that Shapuhr's were suggested to the
translator by the late Latin ductus.
12. Cf. the Annals of Assyrian kings; the military parts of them
start with the accession of the king, see for example the Prism
Pileser I, Luckenbill, op. cit. I, p. 74, no. 221 : "in the
beginning of my reign"; cf. Tukulti-Urta I, ibid. p. 50, no. 143:
"at the beginning of my rule,"
etc. This expression is repeated later over and over again.
13. This is what, in my opinion, is meant by the
meaning the provinces of the Danube limes
and those of the Rhine limes, cf. my remarks (below, pp. 27
ff.) on the similar but more detailed description by Shapuhr of the
army of Valerian at Edessa. There is no question of interpreting the
words quoted above as meaning that Gordian's force consisted chiefly
of German mercenaries. Though soldiers of German origin appeared
occasionally in the Roman army of the early third century A.D. they
were at that time not numerous and were kept in a subordinate
position. See on the Roman army of the third century A. Alföldi, CAM,
XII, p. 21g. The verb at the end of the sentence of which one letter
only is preserved meant probably something like "collected,"
"gathered." I may suggest tentatively that is
to say "collected in addition" (apparently to the Syrian army). The
verb is a but are
frequent in the peculiar Greek of Shapuhr's inscription.
14. For an identification of Mesichise and Misiche see
Sprengling, op. cit. p. 363 ; Olmstead, op. cit. p.