9. Plut. Demetr. 18: after Ptolemaeus,
10. The earliest published text is from the 3rd day of the Babylonian year
304/3 (Parker and
Dubberstein, p. 18) but Kugler, Von Moses bis Paulus, 1922, 309, mentions
texts from the year
11. Parker and Dubberstein, p. 35 ; Unger, Babylon,
1931, p. 320. Parker and Dubberstein, p. 3 5 give the equation: "Year
I of Alexander II (IV) = year 8 of Philip." Alexander succeeded to
Philip Arrhidaeus in the autumn or the winter 317. Cf. Skeat, 2 9 ;
Glanville, Catalogue of Demotic Papyri in the British Museum, I,
1939, p. xix. But Antigonus did not recognize the "puppet" king, a
prisoner of Cassander, and Babylonian records continued to be dated to
Philip still in August 316. Then, when Antigonus. took over Babylon
from Seleucus, he introduced the dating in his own name ("Antigonus,
general"). When Seleucus returned in 3 12, he brought into Babylonia
the dating to Alexander IV. There is a Babylonian record of Simanu of
year 6 of Alexander, son of Alexander, that is from 14 June 3 12
B.C. (Strassmaier, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie, 1888, p. 137).
Consequently, reckoning backward, year I of Alexander IV (3,7/16)
would have corresponded to year 7 of Philip, according to Babylonian
calculations. When the author of the Babylonian chronicle concerning
the Diadochi (infra n. 13) mistakenly places Philip's year 4 in 321/0
(instead of 320/19) his chronological error comes from the
identification between year I of Alexander and year 8 of Philip. Such
mistakes may easily occur in date
lists where only the relative place of an event is of importance. For
instance, cuneiform astronomical tables reckon as the 1st year of
Philip Arrhidaeus now 323/2 and now 322/ 1 (Ed. Meyer,
Forschungen, II, p. 457; Kugler, Sternhunde, II,
pp. 364, 385, 414) ; Similarly, the first year of Antigonus is
floating in astronomical tables. See now Bengtson, Die Strategie in
der hellenistischen Zeit, I, 1937, p. 112. Likewise, some Greek
chroniclers assign Alexander's last year (324-3) to Philip Arrhidaeus,
or count 324-3 as the first year of Ptolemaios I. Cf. Jacoby, FrGrH.
Kommentar, pp. 695, 699.
12. Diod. XX, 53,4. Seleucus became the ruler of the East before 302
(Diod. XX, 106,3). Cf. Newell, EM, p. 79.
13. The cuneiform chronicle apud Sidney Smith, Babylonian Historical
Texts, 1924, p. 145 (cf. Furlani, Momigliano, Rivista di Filologia,
1932, p. 462), tells of war events in Babylonia in the 8th and 9th
year of Alexander IV (309-8 and 308-7 B.C.).
14. Perhaps Seleucus retained Media. Cf. Diod. XIX, 92,5.
15. Hildegard Levy, JAOS, 1944, p.200.
16. Sarru Babili. See the inscription of Antiochus I apud Weissbach, Die
Achaemeniden, 1911, p. 132.
17. Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaios only used the title of
the "king of lands" (Sar Matatu), as the Achaemenidae since 48 1
B.C. See, e.g., the cuneiform text from 23 Nisanu, year 8 of Philip
apud Langdon, Revue d'Assyrologie, XII, 1915, p. 86.
18. Cameron, AJSL, 1941, 322.