[Glossary] [Geographical List] [Abbreviations] [Analytical Key] [Prev] [Contents] [Next]


Acaulescent, stemless or nearly so.
Accumbent (cotyledon), with edges against the radicle. Akene (achene), a dry, indehiscent, 1-seeded fruit.
Aculeate, prickly. -adelphous, - brotherhood.
Adnate, grown to some other part.
Aestivation, arrangement of the petals and sepals in the bud.
Alar, axillary.
Ament, catkin.
< I>Amphitropous, half-inverted, straight, hilum lateral.
Amplexicaul, stem-clasping.
Anastomosing, netted; interveined.
Anatropous, inverted, straight, radicIe inferior.
Androphore, stalk supporting the stamens.
Anterior, front; away from the axis; toward the subtending bract.
Anthesis, flowering. -androus, -stamens.
Antitropous, radicle turned away from the hilum.
Apetalous., without petals.
Apiculate, tipped with a point.
Apocarpous, having separate carpels.
Areole, small space marked out.
-Aril, an appendage to a seed, from the Mum.
Aristate, bearded.
Ascending, rising obliquely or indirectly.
Asperulous, slightly rough with little points.
Auricle, ear-shaped appendage.
Awn, a bristlelike part or appendage.
Axil, upper angle of a petiole or peduncle with the stem.
Axis, the main or central line of development; the main stem..

Baccate, berrylike. Barb, a bristle hooked at tip.
Bifid, two- lobed.
Bladea, the -expanded part of a leaf or petal. Bloom, powdery, waxy, substance.
Boss, knob. Bract, a much-reduced leaf) usually in a flower-cluster.

Caducaus, falling off early.
Callous, hardened, indurated.
Calyculate, calyxlike.
Calyptra, a hood or lid.
Campanulate, bellshaped.
Campylotropous, curved nearly to a ring.
Canescent, gray-hairy and hoary with very short hairs.
Capillary, hairlike.
Capitate, in heads; in a very dense or compact cluster.
Carpel, a simple pistil or one division of a compound pistil.
Carpophore, the stalk of the ovary or fruit.
Capsule, a dry, dehiscent fruit of more than one carpel.
Caruncle, an appendage near the hilum.
Caryopsis, a grain. Caudate, with a. tail-like appendage.
Caulescent, more or' less stemmed.
Cauline, belonging to the stem.
Centripetal, the lowest flowers opening first.
Cespitose (caespitose), matted; tufted.
Chaff, a small, dry, thin membranous scale or bract.
Chartaceous, like writing-paper.
Ciliate, fringed with hairs; hairs on the margin.
Circinate, coiled. Cirrhose, with tendrils.
Circumscissile, opening by a transverse line.
Clavate, clubshaped.
Cleft, -fid, cut about half way to midrib or base.
Cochleariform, having the shape of a snail-shell.
Coherent, two or more similar parts joined.
Commissure, joining surface of two carpels.
Concolorous, of similar colour.
Conduplicate, folded lengthwise, with folds face to face.
Confluent, blended into one.
Connate, joined together.
Connective, which joins the cells of an anther.
Coriaceous, leathery.
Contorted, twisted, convolute.
Convolute, rolled inwards from one side to the other.
Corm, a solid, bulblike part.
Corymb, a contracted raceme, nearly flat at the top.
Crateriform, saucer- or cupshaped.
Crenate, scalloped; with round, shallow teeth.
Crested, with an elevated, irregular or toothed ridge.
Crisp, firm and brittle.
Crustaceous, hard and brittle.
Cuneate, wedgeshaped. Culm, stalk.
Cuspidate, tipped with a sharp, rigid point.
Cyme, a flat flower-cluster, the central flower opening first.
Cymbiform, boat-shaped.
Decompound, more than once compound.
Decumbent, reclining or lying on the ground, but with the end ascending.
Decurrent, running down the stem.
Decussate, alternate pairs at right angles.
Dehiscence, the way of opening of a capsule or anther.
Deltoid, like the letter delta, triangular.
Denticulate, slightly toothed.
Diadelphous, stamens united into two sets, often 9 and 1.
Dichotomous, forked in pairs.
Diclinous, unisexual.
Didynamous, having 4 stamens in two pairs of unequal length.
Diffuse, loosely branching or spreading.
Digitate, handlike.
Dioecious, staminate and pistillate flowers on different plants.
Disk (disc), an enlarged or elevated development of the receptacle about the pistil.
Disk-flowers, in the centre of a compound flower.
Dissected, parted or divided into many slender parts.
Divaricate, widely spreading
Divided, separated to the base.
Dorsal, back. Drupe, stone-fruit.

Eckinate, prickly or almost so. Emarginate, with a shallow notch at the apex. Endocarp, epicarp, inner and outer layers of the pericarp of the berry. Ensiform, sword- -shaped. Epichilium, upper part of labellum (Orchidaceae). Epigynous, borne on the ovary; ovary inferor. Erinaceous, like a hedgehog. Excurrent, projecting beyond the margin. Exogens, dicotyledons and gymnosperms. Exserted, projecting; not included. &Stipulate, without stipules. Extrorse, facing outward.
Falcate, sickle-shaped. Farinaceous, starchlike. Fascicle, a close cluster. Fastigiate, with branches erect and close. together. Fetid, stinking. -fid.-cleft; with lobes extending about half way to midrib. Filiform, threadlike. Fimbriate, fringed. Fistulous, fistular, hollow-cylindrical. FIaccid, lax and weak.
Flexuous, zigzag or wavy.
Floccose, bearing tufts of hair or wool.
Foliaceous, leaflike.
Follicle, dry, dehiscent fruit, opening on the front side only.
Frond, leaf of ferns, of Lemna, etc.
Fruticose, shrubby.
Fugacious, falling very early.
Fungous,, -spongy, soft.
Funicle, the free stalk of an ovule.
Funicular, like a small cord.
Fusiform, spindle-shaped.

Galbule, the fruit of Cypress and juniper.
Galeate, helmet-shaped.
Gamopetalous, monopetalous, the petals united.
Geniculate, bent abruptly, as a knee.
Gibbous, swollen on one side.
Glabrate, nearly glabrous, or becoming glabrous.
Glabrous, not hairy, but not necessarily smooth.
Gland, a prominence or appendage secreting a sticky liquid.
Glandular, having glands.
Glaucescent, becoming glaucous.
Glaucous, covered with a bloom or whitish substance, which rubs off.
Glockidiate, with bristles barbed at the tip.
Glomerate, in a dense cluster or clusters.
Glume, a small chafflike bract.
Grumous, with clustered grains.
Gynandrous, stamens borne upon the pistil.
Gynobase, gynophore, stalk of the ovary; elongated receptacle.
Gynoecium, the collection of carpels.
Gynostemium, the column, composed of style and stamens.

Hastate (halberd-skaped), arrowshaped, but with basal lobes at right
Head, a short, dense spike.
Hemitropous, half-inverted. Hermaphrodite, perfect.
Heterogamous, having two kinds of flowers.
Hilum, the scar on the seed from the funicle.
Hirsute, with rather rough or coarse hairs.
Hispid, with stiff or bristly hairs. Hispidulous, minutely hispid.
Homogamous, having one kind of flowers.
Hyaline, transparent, translucent.
Hypochilium, lower part of labellum.
Hypocrateriform, salvershaped.
Hypogynous, on the receptacle, or under the ovary, free.

imbricated, overlapping like shingles.
Imparipinnate, unequally pinnate.
Incanous, hoary, covered with a close, whitish hairiness.
incised, irregularly, usually deeply and sharply cut.
incumbent, with the back of one cotyledon against the radicle.
Indument, clothing; usually hairy with a more or less heavy covering.
Indusium, covering of the fruit-dot (ferns).
Induplicate, with the tips turned in; see fig. 1.
indurated, hardened.
Inferior, with the receptacle adnate to the ovary.
Infundibuliform, funnelshaped.
Innate, of anthers attached by their base at the apex of the filament.
Introflexed, bent inward.
Introrse, turned inward or toward the axis.
Involucel, a secondary, small involucre, a circle of bractlets. about the umbellet. Involucre, the main circle of bracts.
Involute, rolled inward from both sides.

Labellum, the lip, especially the lip of an orchid.
Laciniate, cut into narrow, pointed lobes.
Lamellate, with thin plates or scales.
Lamina, blade, the leaf without the stalk.
Lanate, woolly.
Legume, pod of the pea family.
Lepidote, covered with small, scurfy scales.
Ligule, strapshaped, especially of the ray-flowers of a composite.
Limb, the expanded part, especially of a gamopetalous corolla.
Zip, one of the parts of an unequally divided calyx or corolla.
Locule, compartment or cell.
Loculicidal, splitting into the backs of the cells.
Lodicle, minute scale, beneath the pale.
Loment, an indehiscent legume with transverse partitions between seeds.
Lurid, dirty-brown, a little clouded.
Lyrate, pinnatifid, but the terminal lobe large and the lower pairs smaller,

Mamillary. With nipples, breastlike.
Marcescent, withering, but persistent.
Mealy, covered with very short, white hairs which come off readily.
Medusa, a jelly-fish.
Membranous, thin, soft and somewhat translucent.
Mericarp, one of the akenelike carpels of an Umbellifer.
-merous, -parts; (number)
Mesocarp, middle layer of the pericarp.
Micropyle, mark indicating the opening of the ovule.
Monadelphous, with stamens united in one group by their filaments.
Moniliform, necklacelike.
Monoecious, staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant.
Monocarpic, having. but one flowering season (annuals and biennials).
Mucronate, tipped with a short, sharp, but rather soft point.
Muricate, rough with short, hard points.

Naturalized, spontaneous, self-seeding.
Nectary, place where nectar is secreted.
Nodule, a little knob.

Ob-, inverted, as obconical is inverted conical. Oblate, flattened. Obsolete, not evident. Ochreole (ocreole), interfloral bract. Ocrea, a legging-shaped or tubular stipule. Oleaginous, oily. Orthotropous, erect, with the micropyle at the apex.

Palate, in personate corollas, a prominence of the lower lip closing the
throat or nearly so.
Palea, pale, palet, in grasses, the upper of the two enclosing bracts, the
lower or flowering glume being the lemna.
Pannous, like felt.
Papillae, small, elongated, nippleshaped protuberances.
Papillose, bearing papillae,
Papilionaceous, butterfly-shaped (Fig. 195 P. 293).
Pappus, peculiar calyxlimb of composites, plumose, bristlelike, of
scales, etc.
Papyraceous, paperlike.
Parietal, borne on the inner surface of a capsule.
Parted, -partite, cut more than half way to the base.
Patellar, like a small dish or vase.
Pectinate, comblike, with very narrow, close divisions.
Pedate, palmately divided with the lateral divisions 2-cleft.
Pedicel, stalk of a single flower.
Pellucid, clear, transparent.
Peltate (leaf), attached to its stalk inside the margin, usually shield
Penicillate, tipped with a pencil of fine hairs.
Perfoliate, with the base of the leaf surrounding the stem.
Pericarp, the ripened ovary.
Perigonium, perianth; calyx and corolla together.
Peripheral, on or near the margin.
Perigynous, borne around the ovary, not under it.
Personate, a 2-lipped corolla with the throat closed by a palate
Phyllodium, leaflike petiole, but no blade.
Pilose, shaggy with soft hairs.
pinnatisect, pinnately sect or divided; cut nearly or quite to the midrib.
Pinnule, a secondary pinna or leaflet in a pinnately decompound leaf.
pip, seed of an orange, apple, etc.
Placenta, the part bearing ovules.
Plicate, plaited, folded lengthwise.
plumose, featherlike. Plumule, growing point of the embryo.
pollinia, masses of pollen-grains.
Polygamous, having perfect and monoecious flowers on the same plant.
Polyhedrous, with many sides.
Polypetalae, Choripetalae, Sympetalae.
Pome, applelike fruit.
Posterior, toward the axis, away from the bract.
Praemorse, appearing as if bitten off.
Procumbent, trailing or lying flat, but not rooting.
Prostrate, flat on the ground.
Pruinose, having a bloom, frosted.
Puberulent, minutely soft-hairy.
Pubescent, with short, soft hairs, downy.
Punctate, with translucent or colored dots or pits.
Pungent, ending in a stiff, sharp point; acrid.
Putamen, hard endocarp or stone.
Pyrene, nutlet, usually of a drupe.
Pyriform, pearshaped.
Pyxis, a pod dividing transversely into an upper and lower part.

Quadrate, nearly square.

Raceme, an elongated, simple axis with pedicelled, centripetal flowers.
Rachilla, a diminutive or secondary rachis.
Rachis (rhachis), an axis bearing flowers or leaflets.
Radicle, caudicle, below the cotyledons.
Raphe, the seed-stalk forming a ridge along the side of an ovule.
Ray, the branch of an umbel; the marginal flowers of a composite.
Receptacle, torus; the more or less enlarged end of a flower-axis.
Reclinate, reclining, bent down or failing back.
Reflexed, refracted, abruptly recurved, or bent downward or backward.
Reniform, kidney-shaped.
Repand, with a slightly uneven and somewhat sinuate margin.
Reticulate, netted, net-veined.
Retrorse, bent or turned over back or downward.
Revolute, rolled backward from the margins or apex.
Rhizome, root stock, underground stem. Ringent, gaping.
Rosulate, in the form of a rosette.
Rotate, wheel-shaped.
Rufescent, somewhat reddish.
Rugose, wrinkled.
Runcinate, sharply pinnately cut, with segments turned backward.

Saccate, bearing sack-like bodies.
Sagittate, like an arrowhead in form.
Samara, an indehiscent fruit, like the key of a maple.
Sarcocarp, the succulent part of the drupe.
Scabrous, rough to the touch.
Scale, a small, dry and appressed leaf or bract.
Scape, a leafless peduncle.
Scarious, not green, but thin, dry and membranous, often somewhat
Scobiform, like sawdust.
Scorpioid, a 1-sided, coiled cluster, in which the flowers are 2-ranked
and borne alternately on the right and the left.
Scrobiculate, marked with numerous small depressions.
Scurfy, covered with minute, membranous scales.
-sect, cut nearly to the midrib or base.
Septate, bearing a septum (partition).
Septicidal, separating along or in the partitions.
Sericeous, silky with straight, soft hairs.
Serrate, sawtoothed.
Setaceous, bristlelike.
Setose, bristly. Setulose, having minute bristles.
Silicle, silique, fruits of the Cruciferae.
Sinuate, wavy-margined.
Sinus, space between two lobes.
Sori, fruit-dots of ferns.
Spadix, a thick or fleshy spike of some kinds of flowers.
Spartioid, broomlike.
Spathe, the bract or leaf about a flower-cluster or spadix.
Spatulate (spathulate), gradually narrowed downward from a rounded
Spike, a crowded, sessile-flowered raceme.
Spore, seedlike, but without embryo. Sporangia, spore-cases.
Squamate, with squamae or small scalelike leaves or bracts.
Squarrose, with parts spreading or even recurved at the ends.
Staminate, having stamens and no pistils; male.
Staminode , an imperfect stamen.
Standard, (Fig. .195, P. 293).
Stellate, starry; hairy with radiaing branches.
Stipe, the stalk of a pistil; also the petiole of a fern-leaf.
Stoloniferous, producing stolons (runners).
Strigose, with straight, appressed hairs or bristles.
Striate, striped.
Strict, straight and upright, with few of no branches, often rigid.
Strobile, like a hop or pine-cone.
Strophiolate, having a strophiole or caruncle.
Stylopodium, a disklike expansion at the base of the style.
Sub-, somewhat, slightly.
Subtending, extending under.
Subulate, awlshaped.
Sulcate, grooved or furrowed lengthwise.
Superior, ovary free from the calyx or receptacle,
Suture, the line or mark of splitting open.
Syncarpous, having carpels united; the opposite of apocarpous.
Syngenesious, having stamens joined by the anthers.

Tabescent, shriveling, wasting.
Terete, cylindrical in transverse section.
Testa, the outer, seed-coat.
Tetradynamous, having 4 long and 2 shorter stamens.
Thyrse, a contracted, cylindrical or ovoid, compact panicle.
Thyrsoid, resembling a thyrse.
Tomentose, densely pubescent with soft, matted wool.
Torulose, contracted at intervals.
Torus, the receptacle of a flower.
Trichotomous, forking, with the 3 divisions from the same point and nearly equal.
Triquetrous, having 3 angles and the sides concave or channeled.
Trivial, specific. Truncate, as if cut off transversely.
Tubercle, a small tuber or tuberlike body. Tuberous, tuberlike.
Tumid, swollen.
Tunicated, with concentric coats, as the bulb of an onion.
Turbinate, topshaped.
Turgid, swollen or tightly drawn.

Umbel, in which the pedicels come from the same point.
Umbilicate, with a small, round depression in the centre.
Umbonate, having a stout projection in the centre; bossed.
Undulate, wavy.
Urguiculate, contracted into a claw.
Urceolate, urnshaped.
Utricle, a small, bladdery, 1-seeded fruit.

Valvate, valvular, meeting by the edges without overlapping (fig. 1).
Valve, a separable part of a pod.

Ventral, front; the inner face.
Ventricose, swollen or inflated on one side, or unevenly.
Vernation, the arrangement of leaves in the bud.
Verrucose, warted.
Versatile, attached near the middle and moving freely.
Verticillate, whorled, arranged in a circle around the stem.
Vesicle, small bladder.
Vexillum, standard.
Villous, with long and soft, not matted, hairs.
Virgate, wandlike; twiggy.
Viscous, viscid, sticky.
Vitta, oil-tube.

Created by the Digital Documentation Center at AUB in collaboration with Al Mashriq of Høgskolen i Østfold, Norway.

980515 BL - Email: ddc-info@aub.edu.lb